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  1. #346
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    Default Re: The Japanese Language Help Thread

    As a supplement to Kamikazen's assistance (i.e. this may be tl;dr):

    Should
    *normal sentence with plain form verb + ほうがいい(you can add です or と思います(など)to make it formal) exact translation: "...would be good(better)"
    you could add it to a negative verb for "it would be better to not do..."
    or a past verb for "it would have been better if you..."

    *normal sentence with plain form verb + べき
    する is an exception, you just say すべき
    specifically this means "you should/ought to do this", it's the most uncommon way because of it's direct meaning (directness being unjapanese by nature)
    ...べきじゃない is "should not do"
    I guess you can say ...べきだった for "should have..." but I never heard it before so I'm just guessing

    normal sentence with plain form verb + はず
    this isn't recommending something but similar to "probably" or "I think". For example, "he should come today, he promised he would", "she should have played baseball yesterday as she usually does", "I should be ready for the test, I studied a lot" 今日彼は来るはずです。 昨日野球をやったはずだ。 うまくいくはずだ 。
    Also "that shouldn't be!" is そんなはずはない
    It can go with verbs too
    近いはず should be close
    本気のはず should be serious
    大丈夫のはず should be ok
    For this, I'd recommend looking up example sentences on Jisho.org

    need to/have to (same thing, aren't they?)
    なければならない is normal, but a lot of people change なければ to なくちゃ and when they do that, they sometimes leave out the ならない so "have to" simply becomes plain, negative verb (e.g. しない) with the ない changed to なくちゃ (e.g. しなくちゃ ~"have to do)
    there's another one too negative verb plus といけない (e.g. そうしないといけません ~"I have to do that") but people just leave out the いけない so it gets short again しないと (行かないと "if I don't go..." ~ "I have to go")


    @kamikazen, you can also use it after verbs and after nounの like 窓を開けたまま寝る (sleep with the window open) 現状のままにしておく(leave it the way it currently is)
    it can also be "as" 友達のまま (as friends)

  2. #347
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    Default Re: The Japanese Language Help Thread

    Quote Originally Posted by Excessive Spare Time View Post
    Okay, given what I've got, I'd like to make sure I'm saying what I think I am:
    Here's what I'm saying.
    Here's what I think it means.
    Anyway, here we go...
    こんにちわ、 [DATA EXPUNGED]。
    こんにちは、

    [DATA EXPUNGED]のCDをかいたいとおもいます。
    xxのCDが かいたいのです。

    Yeah, I know I said "と おもう" last time. For some reason, のです is feeling better with this structure... 気のせいかも Strictly speaking, spaces are not grammatical, but it's so much easier to read.

    アメリカまでのゆそうひってなんですか。
    アメリカまでの ゆそうひは いくらですか。

    Lol, you asked what "shipping to America" means. って is kinda tricky and not really suitable to this kind of (slightly) formal writing. いくら is the "how much is" for prices.

    I'd then put a 「よろしくおねがいします。」 at the end (then your name on another line) and call it good.

    (ぼくのにほんごがじょうずじゃなくてすみません。
    ぼくの にほんごが じょうずじゃなくて すみません。
    If you want to use this, I'd put it first, after こんにちは、(not on the same line.)

    ぼくはアメリカのだいがくせいです。 いちねんせいです。
    Good. You can also combine those and say you're a 大学一年生(だいがくいちねんせい)--seriously, there's a word for everything.

    ----

    Quote Originally Posted by Kamikazen
    First sentence is correct, second is not.
    In my eyes, the sentence "Nihongo wa hanasu koto ga dekimasu." translates as "Japanese can speak." It gives the impression that "nihongo" is showing the ability to speak, not you (Ru-Kun) showing the ability to speak Japanese.
    When you use "koto ga dekimasu," it shows you can do something, that something is the direct object, therefore it should be marked with the particle "wo/o."
    Like this:
    "(Boku wa) nihongo o hanasu koto ga dekimasu."

    "Wakarimasu ka?"
    いいえ、ちがいます。 は does not mean "this noun is doing the action." It means "this being the thing I want to make a statement or ask a question about" and can be used with pretty much anything: subjects, objects, locations, circumstances, etc, etc. Example:
    その絵はレイちゃんが描いたよ。すごいな。
    sono e wa rei-chan ga kaita yo. sugoi na.
    That picture, Rei-chan drew it. Ain't it awesome?

    This feature (は・も・ば-conditional, etc.) doesn't exist it English, so it's a little hard to understand and very hard to understand by translation.

  3. #348
    Spirit of the Divine Wind Kamikazen's Avatar
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    Default Re: The Japanese Language Help Thread

    OK, I've been exploring conditional statements for a while and found something that is stumping me.

    When you use the negative "root" nakattara, does that convey the past progressive/imperfect tense or something else?

  4. #349
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    Default Re: The Japanese Language Help Thread

    No, it doesn't. I'm not sure how to make past conditional but I know that's not it.

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    Default Re: The Japanese Language Help Thread

    Quote Originally Posted by Kamikazen View Post
    OK, I've been exploring conditional statements for a while and found something that is stumping me.

    When you use the negative "root" nakattara, does that convey the past progressive/imperfect tense or something else?
    "nakattara" can be used to say the past event. Actually, Japanese conditional expressions such as "nakattara" aren't affected by the tense: one expression can be used the past, present, and future tense.
    "nakattara" includes the past particle "ta", but works in the same way as "nakereba", which doesn't include "ta".

    Here is some examples:
    <past tense>
    彼が遊びに来なければ(来なかったら), 彼女は昨日勉強していただろう。
    kare-ga asobi-ni ko-nakereba[ko-nakattara], kanojo-wa kinou benkyou-shi-te i-ta-darou.
    (If he hadn't come to play with her, she would have studied yesterday.)

    <present tense>
    彼が遊びに来ていなければ(いなかったら), 彼女は今勉強しているだろう。
    kare-ga asobi-ni ki-te i-nakereba[i-nakattara], kanojo-wa ima benkyou-shi-te iru-darou.
    (If he don't come to play with her, she would study now.)

    <future tense>
    彼が遊びに来なければ(来なかったら), 彼女は明日勉強するだろう。
    kare-ga asobi-ni ko-nakereba[ko-nakattara], kanojo-wa ashita benkyou-suru-darou.
    (If he don't come to play with her, she will study tomorrow.)
    Last edited by Soulweaver; 25th February 2011 at 02:15 AM. Reason: glitch fix attempt

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    Default Re: The Japanese Language Help Thread

    Quote Originally Posted by D-ryukei View Post
    "nakattara" can be used to say the past event. Actually, Japanese conditional expressions such as "nakattara" aren't affected by the tense: one expression can be used the past, present, and future tense.
    "nakattara" includes the past particle "ta", but works in the same way as "nakereba", which doesn't include "ta".

    Here is some examples:
    This clears up some things. Another set of concerns that have arisen is whether or not the conditional indicator "nara" is affected by tense shifts like "nakattara" is, and whether or not "naraba" is used like "nara."
    Also, about kanji, how do you know when to use the on-yomi and kun-yomi readings? A few examples would suffice.

    And another thing, when reading words, i tend to slip on when a rendaku is present. If you don't mind, could you please explain under what circumstances rendakus occur in a word/kanji reading.

    Arigatou gozaimasu.
    Last edited by Soulweaver; 25th February 2011 at 02:17 AM. Reason: glitch fix attempt

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    Default Re: The Japanese Language Help Thread

    Simple question - how do you say this in polite masu/masen form
    行かない→行かなくて (ikanai > ikanakute
    行きません→? (ikimasen > ?)
    Is it simply ませんくて? (masenkute)

  8. #353
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    Default Re: The Japanese Language Help Thread

    Polite te-form is まして and negative polite te-form is ませんで, but the first is rarely used and I'm pretty sure I've never seen the second in the wild.

    Usually, te-form is used in the middle of sentences and polite form only at the end, so they don't go together very often.

  9. #354
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    Default Re: The Japanese Language Help Thread

    Thanks a lot.
    Just curious:
    What does "I'm going to light your [X] on fire" translate to?
    I mean, beyond the basics, I know that ひにおつてけ has something to do with "to light on fire" or "to set fire to," but that's pretty much it...
    Fizzy Bubbles
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    Default Re: The Japanese Language Help Thread

    Quote Originally Posted by Kamikazen View Post
    This clears up some things. Another set of concerns that have arisen is whether or not the conditional indicator "nara" is affected by tense shifts like "nakattara" is, and whether or not "naraba" is used like "nara."
    Also, about kanji, how do you know when to use the on-yomi and kun-yomi readings? A few examples would suffice.

    And another thing, when reading words, i tend to slip on when a rendaku is present. If you don't mind, could you please explain under what circumstances rendakus occur in a word/kanji reading.

    Arigatou gozaimasu.
    Dou itashimasite!
    And, I'll explain "nara" and "naraba".
    Both of them can be used interchangeably, as far as I can imagine.
    Unlike "nakattara", which includes the tense expression ("ta"), "nara" and "naraba" doesn't include any tense expression. Therefore, another tense expression are added before "nara" or "naraba". The added tense expression determines the tense of that clause.
    Here's the examples:
    <past tense>
    彼が来ていたなら(ば)、彼女は昨日勉強していただろう。
    kare-ga ki-te i-ta-nara(ba), kanojo-wa kinou benkyou-shi-te i-ta-darou.
    彼が来たなら(ば)、彼女は昨日勉強していただろう。
    kare-ga ki-ta-nara(ba), kanojo-wa kinou benkyou-shi-te i-ta-darou.
    (If he had come, she would have been studying yesterday.)

    彼が来ているなら(ば)、彼女は今勉強しているだろう。
    kare-ga ki-te iru-nara(ba), kanojo-wa ima benkyou-shi-te iru-darou.
    (If he come(=if he were here), she would be studying now.)

    彼が来るなら(ば)、彼女は明日勉強するだろう。
    kare-ga kuru-nara(ba), kanojo-wa ashita benkyou-suru-darou.
    彼が来たなら(ば)、彼女は明日勉強するだろう。
    kare-ga ki-ta-nara(ba), kanojo-wa ashita benkyou-suru-darou.
    (If he comes, she will study tomorrow.)

    "ki-te i-ta"(past) and "ki-te i-ru"(present) determine the tense of each clause. Past and present tense, in this case, likely to be the subjunctive mood. (So is the case of "nakattara".)
    If you use past-form verb such as "ki-ta" with "nara(ba)", it will usually be the past tense, but it can also be future tense, according to the context.

    Next, "on yomi" and "kun-yomi". Basic ideas for division are:
    "on yomi" is used the word imported from china, often having abstruct or complicated meaning, often forms the "jukugo"(熟語/idiom) such as 会社(kaisha/company, corporation), and 仏教(bukkuou/buddhism).
    "kun yomi" is used the Japanese native word. These words include many verbs, adjective, and the nouns for basic things. For exapmle, 走る(hashiru/run), 大きい(ookii/big), 水(mizu/water).
    As you can see, if the kanji character appears separately, the kanji likely to be read as "kun yomi".

    Last, rendaku occurs the head of the latter component of a compound, such as "manga-bon"(manga/comic + hon/book). But rendaku doesn't always occur and whether a compound includes rendaku or not cannot be predicted.

  11. #356
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    Default Re: The Japanese Language Help Thread

    Quote Originally Posted by D-ryukei View Post
    Dou itashimasite!
    And, I'll explain "nara" and "naraba".
    Both of them can be used interchangeably, as far as I can imagine.
    Unlike "nakattara", which includes the tense expression ("ta"), "nara" and "naraba" doesn't include any tense expression. Therefore, another tense expression are added before "nara" or "naraba". The added tense expression determines the tense of that clause.
    Here's the examples:
    <past tense>
    彼が来ていたなら(ば)、彼女は昨日勉強していただろう。
    kare-ga ki-te i-ta-nara(ba), kanojo-wa kinou benkyou-shi-te i-ta-darou.
    彼が来たなら(ば)、彼女は昨日勉強していただろう。
    kare-ga ki-ta-nara(ba), kanojo-wa kinou benkyou-shi-te i-ta-darou.
    (If he had come, she would have been studying yesterday.)

    彼が来ているなら(ば)、彼女は今勉強しているだろう。
    kare-ga ki-te iru-nara(ba), kanojo-wa ima benkyou-shi-te iru-darou.
    (If he come(=if he were here), she would be studying now.)

    彼が来るなら(ば)、彼女は明日勉強するだろう。
    kare-ga kuru-nara(ba), kanojo-wa ashita benkyou-suru-darou.
    彼が来たなら(ば)、彼女は明日勉強するだろう。
    kare-ga ki-ta-nara(ba), kanojo-wa ashita benkyou-suru-darou.
    (If he comes, she will study tomorrow.)

    "ki-te i-ta"(past) and "ki-te i-ru"(present) determine the tense of each clause. Past and present tense, in this case, likely to be the subjunctive mood. (So is the case of "nakattara".)
    If you use past-form verb such as "ki-ta" with "nara(ba)", it will usually be the past tense, but it can also be future tense, according to the context.

    Next, "on yomi" and "kun-yomi". Basic ideas for division are:
    "on yomi" is used the word imported from china, often having abstruct or complicated meaning, often forms the "jukugo"(熟語/idiom) such as 会社(kaisha/company, corporation), and 仏教(bukkuou/buddhism).
    "kun yomi" is used the Japanese native word. These words include many verbs, adjective, and the nouns for basic things. For exapmle, 走る(hashiru/run), 大きい(ookii/big), 水(mizu/water).
    As you can see, if the kanji character appears separately, the kanji likely to be read as "kun yomi".

    Last, rendaku occurs the head of the latter component of a compound, such as "manga-bon"(manga/comic + hon/book). But rendaku doesn't always occur and whether a compound includes rendaku or not cannot be predicted.
    Your advice has helped me a lot. I fully understand this now. :)
    Again, Doumo arigatou gozaimasu.

  12. #357
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    Default Re: The Japanese Language Help Thread

    What's the difference of using Ji (じ,ぢ), then Zu (づ,ず)

  13. #358
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    Default Re: The Japanese Language Help Thread

    @make_it_worse

    In modern kana usage, the rules are:
    ぢ immediately following ち in the same word:
    ちぢまる -- to shrink

    づ immediately following つ in the same word:
    つづく -- to continue

    But not kanji compounds:
    いちじかんご - after an hour had passed

    Compound words add 点々 to the original kana:
    はな (nose) + ち (blood) = はなぢ (nosebleed)
    き (ki / spirit) + つく (be stuck on) = きづく (to notice)
    くつ (shoe) すみ (black ink) = くつずみ (black shoe polish)

    All other cases are usually じ or ず

    Older spelling is irregular.
    Last edited by wildweathel; 18th March 2011 at 10:42 AM.

  14. #359
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    Default Re: The Japanese Language Help Thread

    Uh~ I speak japanese, but not much. Watashi no baka! :3 (I know what I said, dont worry.)

  15. #360
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    Default Re: The Japanese Language Help Thread

    I practiced my Japanese sentence writing and would like to ask if my sentences are correct please and thank you :)

    Hey! I'm a samurai.
    Oi! Watashi ha samurai.
    おい!わたしはさむらい。

    This hat is green.
    Kore midori ha boushi desu.
    これみどりはぼうしです。

    That car is red.
    Sore akai ha kuruma desu.
    それあかいはくるまです。

    Water is blue.
    Mizu ha aoi desu.
    みずはあおいです。

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