Target Pokemon: Slowpoke
Char requirement: 10k
actual: 10-12k

I have uploaded 2 .docx files and will link below, the formatting is important and cannot be carried out using a forum.

The first file is a paper on the viability of pokemon evolution under the law of conservation of mass-energy, the second is paper outlining how a way of calculating how much material a person would have to stand behind to be safe from all radiation in the event Porygon were to evolve. If the grader requires it Monbrey has offered to help with the physics (not sure he is qualified for paper two though, you may have to take my word on that one) and I can upload some scans and excel files showing my calculations. Paper one is theoretical whilst paper two is experimental. These two files make up my submitted story though paper 2 does not directly mention Pokemon.

Paper 1: http://www.filedropper.com/slowpokearticle

EDIT: the phone numbers are for my faculty office, not me directly

the text is posted below but some equations etc are missing

I have done some further proof reading/noticed a random error, changes are in bold below

Abstract-- In the Pokémon anime and games, many of the fictional creatures change form, this paper explores the possibility of one such change according to basic physical principles and the law of conservation of mass. It is quickly shown that such an evolution is not practically possible exactly as stated by the universe canon without the external application of large amounts of energy.
I. INTRODUCTION

The Pokémon anime first created in 1996 (The Wikimedia Foundation, 2012), since the early days of the show and games, Pokémon have been shown to evolve and in doing so, change size and shape. One particular evolution is that of Slowpoke to Slowbro, the Pokédex states that this evolution happens when a Shellder bites the tail of a Slowpoke. The masses of the Pokémon are given in the Pokédex (The Pokemon Company, 2012), Shellder is stated to have a mass of 4.0kg, Slowpoke is stated to have a mass of 36.0kg and Slowbro is stated to have a mass of 78.5kg. With this data, it is possible to test whether the law of conservation of mass hold, and in the event that it does not, exactly how much energy must be converted to mass to make the evolution possible.

The required energy may by calculated using the famous equation proposed by Einstein (Tipler & Llewellyn, 2008), e=mc^2 (this is properly formatted in the .docx) .

II. Results

It was given above that the Shellder had a mass of 4.0kg, the Slowpoke had a mass of 36.0kg and the Slowbro had a mass of 78.5kg. This gives a mass deficit of 38.5kg that must come from external energy. Using the above equation, 38.5kg is equivalent to 3.5 exajoules of energy.
III. Discussion

3.5 exajoules is an awful lot of energy, to give some sense of scale, the energy required to evolve from Slowpoke to Slowbro is about 41400 times the energy released in the bombing of Hiroshima (Rosenberg, 2012).

This does not entirely rule out the evolution however, it is entirely possible that the mass of individuals of the species is not fixed. If that were the case, it may be expected that the Shellder are attracted to heavier Slowpoke and the evolution somehow enables them to grow larger again.

Evolution as depicted on the show and in the games however is impossible as the mass gain there is almost instantaneous and Pokémon have a tendency to glow when evolving in the anime, implying that the evolution actually uses negative energy which appears not to be the case.

Five Pokémon do get lighter upon evolution (Bulbagarden, 2012), Porygon for instance, is 4.0kg heavier than its evolution, Porygon 2. If Porygon were to evolve, the explosion would be about four times larger than the largest nuclear bomb ever detonated, the Tsar Bomba, which was reduced in size because of safety concerns.
IV. Conclusion

Evolution as described in the Pokémon franchise is at best, impossible, and at worst, apocalyptic. Nuclear explosions on the scale of Porygon evolving would potentially mean the loss of most life on earth.

On the other hand, only about 1/100 evolutions is actually possible given the confines of mass-energy conservation. This makes the Pokémon universe impossible under current physical laws.
V. Acknowledgement

The Author would like to thank the URPG officials and graders for inspiring this work, it would never have happened without these people.
VI. References

Bulbagarden. (2012). Bellosum (Pokemon) - Bulbapedia, the community-driven Pokemon encyclopedia. Retrieved March 28, 2012, from Bulbapedia: Bellossom (Pokémon) - Bulbapedia, the community-driven Pokémon encyclopedia
Rosenberg, J. (2012). Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Retrieved March 28, 2012, from About.com: Hiroshima and Nagasaki
The Pokemon Company. (2012). Pokedex | Pokemon.com. Retrieved March 28, 2012, from Pokemon.com: Pokédex | Pokemon.com
The Wikimedia Foundation. (2012, March 27). Pokemon - Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved March 28, 2012, from Wikipedia: Pokémon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Tipler, P. A., & Llewellyn, R. A. (2008). Modern Physics (5th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman and Company.

Manuscript received May 6, 2011. This work was supported by the Ultra Pokémon Roleplaying Game.
L. J Hines is with the School of Engineering Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia (telephone: 0433-332-134, e-mail: Redacted for purposes of URPG publication).

 Calculating the Attenuation Coefficient of Gamma Radiation

 L. J. Hines, School of Engineering Physics, University of Wollongong, Australia

Abstract-- The attenuation coefficient of gamma radiation was calculated measuring what percentage of radiation from a source would pass through lead and aluminium of varying thicknesses. The use of two different materials also allowed the cross sections of the atoms of these materials to be calculated. For aluminium, µ=(0.21 0.01) and for lead, µ=(0.50 0.06) . The mass attenuation coefficients are slightly different Aluminium has a mass-attenuation coefficient of 0.078 and lead has a mass-attenuation-coefficient of 0.044 0.005 . For aluminium, the atomic cross section is (3.5 0.1)x and in the case of lead, the atomic cross section is (1.5 )x .
I. INTRODUCTION

Gamma radiation is the most penetrative and least ionizing of all types of nuclear radiation. Radiations ionizing potential is inversely proportional to its penetration (Table 1). An experiment was carried out using a source. The main idea was to find out what percentage of the gamma rays successfully passed through a given thickness of metal. From here, it was possible to calculate the attenuation coefficient and the mass attenuation coefficient for the given material.
Recordings of radiation levels were made using a shielded Geiger-Müller tube. Counting was done electronically using an ST 360 Counter Unit. This is vastly more reliable than a human counting.
Gamma radiation is absorbed by matter following an exponential curve such that

where I is the initial intensity, dx is the distance through which the radiation travels and µ is the absorption, or attenuation coefficient which we set out to calculate[1].
From the above equation, it can be noted that µ is dependent on the material through which the radiation is traveling as the density of the material is not a part of the equation.
The atomic cross section, given in can be calculated by the mass-attenuation-coefficient divided by the number of atoms per gram.
Higher attenuation coefficients mean that the radiation travels a shorter distance is such a substance.
Table I
Penetration and Ionisation from Different radiation Types
 Ionisation Penetration Alpha High Low Beta Medium Medium Gamma Low High

II. Procedure

Initial background radiation levels were recorded so as to reduce the error in the final result. All data was recorded over a long enough time to create an error of 3% or better, this required at least 1112 counts for each data point. It did however lead to quite a large error in the final result.
The number of counts per minute after radiation had passed through a given amount of material was recorded and then used to graph a line of counts versus lead thickness, the background radiation having been removed. The value of the slope multiplied by negative one would then be the value of the attenuation coefficient.
III. Results

Data was recorded for both materials; aluminium had many more data points than lead, giving it a more reliable result.
Data points for aluminium are recorded on graph 1 and the data points for lead recorded on graph 2.
The attenuation coefficients can easily be read off the graphs below. That is, for aluminium, µ=(0.21 0.01) and for lead, µ=(0.50 0.06) .
The mass-attenuation-coefficients are simply µ/ρ[1] where ρ is the density of the absorbing substance. These can be easily calculated and the numbers are shown below.
In the case of aluminium, ρ 2.7g/ . This means that the mass-attenuation-coefficient ((0.21 0.01)/2.7) 0.078 .
In the case of lead, ρ 11.34g/ . Using the above equation, the mass-attenuation-coefficient for lead 0.044 0.005
From these numbers, and the equations given in the introduction, it becomes possible to calculate the atomic cross section of the two elements used as absorbers given Avogadro’s number being equal to 6.022x .[2]
For aluminium, the atomic cross section is (3.5 0.1)x and in the case of lead, the atomic cross section is (1.5 )x .

Graph 1

Graph 2
IV. Discussion

The lead is more efficient at stopping gamma radiation, but only in terms of distance traveled. Per unit mass, aluminium has more “stopping power” than lead. Lead is however a much larger atom, having approximately 4 times the atomic cross section.
If one wanted to, it would be a relatively simple task to calculate the radius and volume of the atoms used as absorbers in this experiment.
V. Conclusion

To compare results with those expected, the values of the mass attenuation coefficients were used. Lead should have had a result around 0.07[3] when in fact the value obtained was 0.044 0.005
Aluminium should have had a result of 0.06 when the obtained result was in fact 0.078 . The expected results were made assuming an energy of approximately 1 Mega-electron-volt. The actual energy of the rays was not recorded therefore the recorded data may well be accurate, even though it does not agree with the expected values.
The relative sizes of the atoms is to be expected, with the lead atom having four times the cross section of the aluminium atom. These cross sections were (3.5 0.1)x for aluminium and (1.5 )x for lead.
The attenuation coefficients based on distance make perfect sense, with lead being a better absorber than aluminium. The recorded values were µ=(0.21 0.01) for aluminium and µ=(0.50 0.06) .
Errors may have been introduced at various points along the path, especially because of the random nature of radioactive decay. Ideally, recordings for each thickness would have been taken over the course of several hours, rather than a few minutes.
VI. Acknowledgement

The author thanks Mr. Mathew Cameron, Mr. Alex Mundey and Mr. Duncan Fisher for assistance in performing the original experiment.
The author would also like to thank Dr. Carey Freeth for helping him to understand the theory behind the experiment.
The author would also like the thank Mr. David Hines for double checking some of the mathematical results.

VII. References

[1] University of Wollongong, "Modern Physics Experiment, Nuclear Physics – Gamma Radiation," Phys 205 Lab Notes, Feb 2011.
[2] L.A Campbell, and H.A. Campbell, Avogadro's Law - Avogadro's theory - Avogadro's hypothesis, 2008, Visited May 5, 2011.
[3] National Institute of Science and Technology, NIST: X-Ray Mass Attenuation Coefficients - Table 3, Visited May 5 2011.

Manuscript received May 6, 2011. This work was supported by the School of Engineering Physics, University of Wollongong.
L. J Hines is with the School of Engineering Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia (telephone: 0433-332-134, e-mail: Redacted for URPG publication).

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