So I've watched a few episodes of Doctor Who now. Time for some theories!
NO SPOILERS PLEASE. I've watched through the episode where the Doctor meets
the last Dalek
, and I'm part of the way through the one following that.
1) The Timelords lost the war because they were too busy being The Doctor. I don't quite see any other way that would happen, keeping in mind the TIME POWERS the Doctor displayed at the end of the world.
2) There are more Doctors past the one we see now. We know this via dramatic irony. It stands to reason that they wouldn't reset the chronology without rebooting the whole series. Therefore I feel like the Doctor probably finds some sort of Time War refugee colony with more Timelords and possibly Daleks.